# A New Perspective on Dark Matter: Unraveling Spacetime Mysteries

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## Chapter 1: Understanding Dark Matter

This piece serves more as a self-published exploration of a personal scientific hypothesis rather than a conventional narrative. It assumes that the reader possesses a basic understanding of dark matter and the enigma of unexplained gravitational forces we observe in the universe. While the content may seem somewhat dry, I encourage those interested in a more accessible metaphorical explanation of "dark dents and wrinkles" in spacetime to jump to the bold paragraph at the conclusion.

The quest for dark matter is akin to searching for an elusive footprint without knowing what kind of foot left it. The peculiarities we observe may not be what they seem. A fresh perspective might yield a more satisfactory explanation.

I propose a new hypothesis, which I refer to as "Theory A." This theory offers an alternative understanding of the so-called "missing matter" or "extra gravity" dilemma in astrophysics. It suggests that what we perceive as missing matter does not account for the extra gravitational pull we detect and posits a different solution. Until we discover actual dark matter, I believe this theory provides a more compelling answer than the conventional dark matter framework.

Theory A does not support the notion that dark matter is the root cause of this gravitational anomaly, which I will refer to as "the problem." Instead, it suggests that the issue arises from the persistent curvature of spacetime—shaped by extraordinary events—resulting in "dents and wrinkles" that render parts of spacetime effectively non-elastic.

Normal gravitational force is intrinsically linked to the presence of mass in spacetime, with general relativity explaining this as a "curvature." This curvature describes how mass interacts with mass within spacetime. In this context, normal gravitational force cannot exist without ordinary matter. When we encounter curvature in spacetime without detectable mass, we rightfully consider it "abnormal." In contrast to the dark matter hypothesis, which proposes the existence of "abnormal matter," Theory A argues that this abnormality stems from the very fabric of spacetime itself, characterized by "non-elasticity" or irreversible curvature.

In Theory A, the absence of mass leading to detectable gravitational effects is termed "dark gravity." The gravitational anomalies around galaxies are referred to as "dark dents," while the overarching structure of the universe, known as the cosmic web, is described as "dark wrinkles."

Theory A posits that certain regions of spacetime exhibit "imperfections," or intrinsic curvature. This curvature mirrors the effects described by general relativity, which mass imparts upon spacetime. The resulting "effective curvature" creates the gravitational forces we observe, whether they stem from mass or from the innate wrinkles and dents in spacetime.

A brief speculation: during the Planck epoch, energy and spacetime may have existed in an unusual state. This state potentially caused the "imperfections" or permanent curvatures that I describe as "dents" and "wrinkles." The precise relationship between this special energy state and spacetime remains unclear, but the existence of these spacetime anomalies is evident.

While this theory clarifies the concept of "dark gravity," the origins of dark gravity itself remain unexplained here. Normal spacetime differs fundamentally from mass or energy, lacking its own shape. However, one can envision that during or shortly after the Planck epoch, the indistinctness of energy and spacetime may have left a lasting impression on certain areas of spacetime. Although this idea is speculative and abstract, I aim to develop a more concrete theory—perhaps termed "Theory B"—to elaborate on why spacetime possesses both "perfect" and "imperfect" characteristics.

Continuing with Theory A, it offers a distinct alternative to the dark matter hypothesis, suggesting that variations in spacetime—whether wrinkled or smooth—are the true origins of the perceived extra gravity. According to this theory, normal spacetime behaves elastically, responding to the presence of mass with curvature and flattening out when mass is removed. In contrast, "bent" or "wrinkled" spacetime is permanently non-elastic, meaning it retains its shape even in the absence of mass, contributing to what we recognize as "the problem."

Thus, "problem" spacetime possesses its own intrinsic curvature, leading to the existence of gravity without any present mass. Theory A asserts that spacetime comprises a blend of "elastic" normal regions and "non-elastic" dented and wrinkled areas, providing a comprehensive explanation for the anomalies we observe in gravitational behavior.

Before the advent of general relativity, the notion of effective curvature in spacetime was not well understood. Now that we recognize that some curvature can exist independently of detectable matter, the most rational explanation is that certain regions of spacetime inherently possess their own curvature. The dark matter hypothesis, which introduces an additional layer of complexity by suggesting missing matter, may not be the best scientific approach. It's more plausible that curved spacetime—potentially shaped by events or its own innate characteristics—exists without the need for dark matter.

Theory A presents a more straightforward solution to the "problem," aligning with our observations while minimizing the introduction of unknown factors. The curvature we detect, devoid of associated matter, likely belongs to spacetime itself rather than being a byproduct of undetectable matter.

To visualize "dark gravity" as "bent and wrinkled spacetime," think of spacetime as the stretchable fabric of a nearly new couch. Most of the fabric appears smooth, yet when someone sits down, it creates a dent, which disappears when they rise. However, upon closer inspection, some areas of the fabric reveal persistent dents and wrinkles that are always present. This curvature is an intrinsic feature of the fabric, representing "dark gravity," which is not the result of invisible matter creating these imperfections.

Intro to “Theory B” link below:

Andre P. Laisney

Published November 1st, 2022 on Medium.com, link added November 15th, 2022.

If you found this exploration enlightening, please share it with fellow physicists and the Nobel Prize Committee. Thank you!

### Section 1.1: Dark Matter Decay - Roger Penrose

In this enlightening video, Roger Penrose discusses the concept of dark matter decay, providing insights into its implications for our understanding of the universe.

### Section 1.2: The Potential of Dark Energy Theory

This video dives into the intriguing potential of dark energy theory, exploring its implications for the future of cosmic exploration and understanding.